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From:

Ferguson Caras LLC
989 Herrick Brook Road
Pawlet, VT 05761
802-325-3200



Weed Germination Notes & Downloadable Images:
Pacific Northwest & Western Mountain States

Weeds are opportunistic, competitive and invasive. These are the qualities that make them so successful in nature and so frustrating for gardeners. Those who garden in the Pacific Northwest and the Western Mountain States share many of the same weed pests but not all. Knowing a bit about how and when different weeds germinate and how local conditions affect this, can help when combating unwanted weeds in garden and landscape beds.

Weeds are divided into two major groups annuals and perennials. Annuals are plants that complete their life cycle in 12 months or less. They don’t survive after they produce seeds and it is by those seeds that they succeed or fail. Perennials come back year after year after year and once established they continue to make seeds year after frustrating year.

The following table is organized by weed type and contains links lead to details in this document about the growth cycle of each weed. Note: the images here are cropped, for more images and full sized downloads go to the Image Gallery.

Problem Summer Annual Weeds

Many summer annuals need to experience a period of cold temperatures before they germinate. As winter cold gives way to spring warmth and lengthening days, summer annual weed seeds germinate and rapidly grow to outpace other plants. Follow links to learn more.

Western Pacific Northwest Latin Name Central & Eastern Pacific
Northwest & the
Western Mountains
Latin Name
Barnyardgrass Echinochloa crus-galli Barnyardgrass Echinochloa crus-galli
Common lambsquarters Chenopodium album Common lambsquarters Chenopodium album
Horseweed or marestail Conyza canadensis Hare barley Hordeum murinum
Marsh cudweed Gnaphalium uliginosum Horseweed or marestail Conyza canadensis
Pigweeds Amaranthus retroflexus,
A. blitoides
, A. albus
Kochia Kochia scoparia
Smartweed species - pale smartweed Polygonum lapathifolium Prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola
    Pigweeds Amaranthus retroflexus,
A. blitoides
, A. albus
    Prostrate knotweed Polygonum aviculare
    Purslane Portulaca oleracea
    Russian-thistle or tumbleweed Salsola iberica


Problem Winter Annual Weeds

Seeds of winter annuals respond to cooling soil temperatures and shorter daylengths and rains of early autumn. Winter annual seedlings appear in September or October and will survive through the winter, growing during periods of winter thaw in or slowly all winter in milder climates. They grow rapidly in early spring, often flowering and setting seed before the last spring frost. Follow links to learn more.

Western Pacific Northwest Latin Name Central & Eastern Pacific
Northwest & the
Western Mountains
Latin Name
Annual bluegrass Poa annua Annual bluegrass Poa annua
Annual sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus Black medic Medicago lupulina
Common chickweed Stellaria media Common chickweed Stellaria media
Common groundsel Senecio vulgaris Common groundsel Senecio vulgaris
Dwarf mallow or buttonweed Malva neglecta Dwarf mallow or buttonweed Malva neglecta
Dwarf pearlwort Sagina apetala Downy brome or cheatgrass Bromus tectorum
Dovefoot geranium Geranium molle Flixweed Descurainia sophia
Henbit Lamium amplexicaule Foxtails Setaria pumila
and S. viridis
Italian or annual ryegrass Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum Henbit Lamium amplexicaule
Pineapple-weed Matricaria discoidea Pineapple-weed Matricaria discoidea
Purple deadnettle Lamium purpureum Rattail fescue Vulpia myuros
Rattail fescue Vulpia myuros Redstem filaree Erodium cicutarium
Redstem filaree Erodium cicutarium    
Smooth hawksbeard Crepis capillaris    
Wall lettuce Mycelis muralis    
Western bittercress Cardamine oligosperma    
Willow-herb Epilobium brachycarpum and
E. ciliatum, E. minutum
   


Problem Simple Perennial Weeds

Simple perennials are plants that spread only by seeds, but once established they continue to make seeds year after frustrating year. Think of a dandelion to get the idea of a simple perennial. Even when growing thickly, simple perennials are not attached to each other. Follow links to learn more.

Western Pacific Northwest Latin Name Central & Eastern Pacific
Northwest & the
Western Mountains
Latin Name
Broadleaf dock Rumex obtusifolius Curly dock Rumex obtusifolius
Common catsear Hyphochaeris radicata Dandelion Taraxacum officinale
Curly dock Rumex obtusifolius Mouseear chickweed Cerastium vulgare
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Willow-herb Epilobium ciliatum
Hedge bindweed Cerastium vulgare    
Mouseear chickweed Cerastium vulgare    
Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius    
Willow-herb Epilobium ciliatum    


Problem Creeping Perennial Weeds

Creeping perennials are sneaky an difficult to eradicate once established. A single shoot grows and spreads, usually by creeping stems or roots or rhizomes, until the one plant consists of hundreds of daughter plants and covers the landscape. Follow links to learn more.
Western Pacific Northwest Latin Name Central & Eastern Pacific
Northwest & the
Western Mountains
Latin Name
Canada thistle Cirsium arvense Canada thistle Cirsium arvense
Creeping buttercup Ranunculus repens Creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera
Creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis
Horsetail or scouring rush Equisetum spp. Horsetail or scouring rush Equisetum spp.
Red sorrel Rumex acetocella Quackgrass Elymus repens
White clover Trifolium repens Red sorrel Rumex acetocella
    White clover Trifolium repens

Annual Weeds

annual bluegrass
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Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed; some biotypes root at the nodes
- Germination occurs over a wide variety of soil temperatures, from early spring until late fall
- Usually spreads with lawn clippings or by seeds in wet lawns sticking to shoes
- In drier areas of the region, it often dies back during warm and dry times
- Look for grasses that are flowering while only two or three inches tall

annual sowthistle
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Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Look for sharply-toothed leaves with milky juice; flowers look like small dandelions and are borne at the top of the stem

barnyard grass
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Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warm soil, from late spring to early summer
- Look for flattened stems arising from a central crown, sometimes tinged with red
- Does not tolerate frost

black medic
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Black medic (Medicago lupulina)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in early to mid-spring
- Leaves have 3 (or sometimes 4) leaflets in a familiar clover shape
- Usually flowers in mid-summer through fall
- Flower are yellow and clover-like, but fruits turn black at maturity
- Plants may overwinter in mild winters

Stellaria media
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Common chickweed (Stellaria media)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs nearly every month of the year, as long as temperatures are above freezing
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Above-ground plant parts exposed to frost in winter may die, but roots may survive to re-grow when soil warms again
- Look for star-shaped flowers with five white petals each with two lobes at the tip

Common groundsel
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Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs nearly every month of the year, as long as temperatures are above freezing
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Above-ground plant parts exposed to frost in winter may die, but roots may survive to re-grow when soil warms again
- Look for sometimes woolly leaves and yellow flowers that are barely visible at the tips of the flower buds

lambsquarters
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Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from late spring to early summer
- If seed germinates in summer or fall, plants can still set seed before onset of winter, although plants may only be a few inches tall - Does not tolerate frost

dovefoot geranium
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Dovefoot geranium (Geranium molle)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in fall, and plants overwinter to begin growth again in spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer
- Look for dark red stems arising from a rosette early in the life cycle, followed by flowers bearing five pink petals

Downy brome
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Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in the fall
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through early summer
- Look for reddish stems and seedheads; seeds are sharp-tipped and stick to socks and clothing

dwarf mallow
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Dwarf mallow or buttonweed (Malva neglecta)
- Winter Annual to Spring Annual to Short-lived Perennial
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in early spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer to fall
- Generally tolerates frost, often surviving winter
- Look for circular, with heart-shaped bases and strong finger-like main veins (palmate); fruits are circular button-shaped

dwarf pearlwort
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Dwarf pearlwort (Sagina apetala)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs nearly every month of the year, as long as temperatures are above freezing
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Look for thread-like green stems and leaves, often forming a mat on the surface of the soil

Flixweed
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Flixweed (Descurainia sophia)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in fall to early spring
- Usually flowers in late spring through early summer
- Look for lacy leaves with dense hairs and emitting a strong odor when crushed; flowers are tiny, yellowish-green and fruits are long and slender

foxtail
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Foxtails: Yellow Foxtail (Setaria pumila) and Green Foxtail (S. viridis)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in late spring through early summer
- Usually flowers in mid-summer through fall
- Look for tight, cylindrical seedheads; seeds are short-awned and generally do not become bur-like

hare barley
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Hare barley (Hordeum murinum)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in early spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through mid-summer
- Look for tight seedheads; seeds are sharp-tipped and stick to socks and clothing and bear very long awns

henbit
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Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in both fall and spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Look for opposite leaves, square stems, and showy (but small) purple flowers in clusters at the base of each pair of leaves

herb Robert
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Herb robert (Geranium robertianum)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in fall, and plants overwinter to begin growth again in spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer
- Look for dark red stems, and sticky foliage emitting a foul smell (often called “stinky bob” due to this attribute)

horseweed
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Horseweed or marestail (Conyza canadensis)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from late spring to early summer
- Commonly found along roadsides and in graveled areas
- If seed germinates in summer or fall, plants can still set seed before onset of winter, although plants may only be a few inches tall
- Does not tolerate frost
- Look for mostly unbranched stems and tiny white and yellow flowers

annual ryegrass
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Italian or annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
- Winter or Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination can occur in fall or in spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer
- Look for shiny (waxy) leaves, particularly on the underside

kochia
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Kochia (Kochia scoparia)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from early spring to early summer
- Leaves are velvety due to short fine hairs
- Stems are often striped with green or red
- Flowers are inconspicuous in upper branches during mid- to late summer
- Shoots break free from roots in the fall and winter, rolling across the landscape and seeding themselves freely

kochia
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Marsh cudweed (Gnaphalium uliginosum)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from late spring to early summer
- If seed germinates in summer or fall, plants can still set seed before onset of winter, although plants may only be a few inches tall
- Does not tolerate frost
- Look for woolly gray leaves with clusters of inconspicuous flowers at the tips

nipplewort
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Nipplewort (Lapsana communis)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for leaves with a large terminal lobe with many hairs; flowers look like very small dandelions and are borne at the top of the stem

pigweed
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Pigweeds (Amaranthus retroflexus and A. powellii)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from late spring to early summer
- If seed germinates in summer or fall, plants can still set seed before onset of winter, although plants may only be a few inches tall
- Does not tolerate frost
- Look for leaves with prominent veins and seedheads with small sharp bracts thoughout

pineapple weed
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Pineapple-weed (Matricaria discoidea)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for lacy leaves; flowers are tiny and yellow, in small heads with a pineapple-like fragrance

prickly lettuce
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Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in early spring
- Usually flowers in mid- to late summer
- Look for dandelion-like leaves with milky juice; flowers look like very small dandelions and are borne at the top of the stem; a single row of prickles can be found on the underside of the leaves

knotweed
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Prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from early spring to early summer
- Relatively resistant to frost, it may survive mild winters to begin growth again in the spring
- Look for narrow leaves along stems that lie flat on the ground, often along sidewalks; stems have enlarged nodes; flowers are tiny and pink or white

purple deadnettle
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Purple deadnettle (Lamium purpureum)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in both fall and spring
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer and fall
- Look for opposite leaves, square stems, and showy (but small) purple flowers in clusters at the base of each pair of leaves

purslane
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Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs from late spring to mid-summer
- Leaves are thick, waxy, oval, and succulent
- Usually flowers in summer through fall
- Look for thickened reddish stems that lie flat on the ground; flowers are tiny and yellow

rattail fescue
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Rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in the fall
- Usually flowers in mid-spring through summer
- Look for tight bunches of thin leaves from a single crown and feathery seedheads

redstem filaree
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Redstem filaree (Erodium cicutarium)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in fall, and plants overwinter to begin growth again in spring
- Usually flowers in late spring through summer
- Look for dark red stems with lacy foliage; flower bears five pink to rose petals that give rise to fruits reminiscent of a stork’s head and long beak

Russian thistle
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Russian-thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola iberica)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from early spring to early summer
- First leaves are needle-like and spine-tipped, while stem leaves are short and broad and also spine-tipped
- Stems are often striped with green or red
- Flowers are inconspicuous, although often borne in showy red bracts in upper branches during mid- to late summer
- Shoots break free from roots in the fall and winter, rolling across the landscape and seeding themselves freely

ladysthumb
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Smartweed species: ladysthumb - Polygonum persicaria and pale smartweed - P. lapathifolium
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in warming soil, from late spring to early summer
- If seed germinates in summer or fall, plants can still set seed before onset of winter, although plants may only be a few inches tall
- Does not tolerate frost
- Look for long and narrow leaves sometimes bearing a dark spot (“thumbprint”) near the center; stems are often red with a enlarged nodes; flower clusters are usually mixed pink and white in color

smooth hawksbeard
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Smooth hawksbeard (Crepis capillaris)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for dandelion-like leaves with milky juice; flowers look like small dandelions and are borne at the top of the stem

wall lettuce
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Wall lettuce (Mycelis muralis)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for dandelion-like leaves with milky juice, often reddish in color; flowers look like very small dandelions and are borne at the top of the stem

western bittercress
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Western bittercress (Cardamine oligosperma)
- Winter Annual
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination normally occurs in the fall, but some seeds will germinate in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-winter to mid-spring
- Fruits are slender and thin; when ripe they “explode” when touched (often called “shotweed” due to this attribute)
- Look for circular rosettes with several round leaflets; flowers are tiny and white

willow herb
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Willow-herb (Epilobium brachycarpum and E. minutum)
- Summer Annual
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in the spring
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for unbranched stems that bear flowers with 4 pink to purple petals at the tips of dark reddish fruits

Perennials


Canada thistle
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Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by creeping roods and by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Shoots emerge in mid-spring
- Leaves are variously toothed to lobed, although all types bear sharp spines
- Usually flowers in mid-summer; flower heads are usually not particularly spiny
- Look for unbranched shoots that are all connected 6 to 10 inches below the surface of the soil
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

Common catsear
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Common catsear (Hyphochaeris radicata)
- Simple Perennial
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination occurs in spring and summer
- Leaves are very hairy and shallowly lobed, with each lobe rounded at the tip; plants bear milky juice
- Flowers in mid- to late summer
- The yellow dandelion-like flowerheads borne much-branched stems
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year, although they may stay green in milder climates

creeping bentgrass
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Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by stolons that root at the nodes and by seed
- Stolons often are mixed brown an green with living and dead leaf material
- Flowers in late summer
- Flower inflorescences open and feathery
- Plants stay green all winter in milder climates

creeping buttercup
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Creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by stolons that root at the nodes and by seed - Leaves are deeply lobed and sometimes are slightly variegated (white markings on green leaves)
- Flowers in late spring
- Flowers are single, each with 5 shiny yellow petals
- Plants stay green all winter in milder climates

curly dock
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Curly dock (Rumex crispus) and broadleaf dock (R. obtusifolius)
- Simple Perennial
- Propagation is by seed
- Shoots emerge in mid- to late spring
- Leaves are long and narrow (curly dock) to wide (broadleaf dock), often with an undulating margin
- Flowers in mid- to late summer
- Flowers are greenish and inconspicuous, followed by rusty red fruits
- Look for a bright yellow taproot
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

Dandelion
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Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
- Simple Perennial
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination occurs in spring and summer
- Leaves are sharply toothed, usually without hairs, and bear milky juice
- Flowers in early to mid-spring, often again in fall
- The single yellow flowerheads borne on naked stems are familiar to all
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year, although they may stay green in milder climates

field bindweed
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Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by creeping roots and by seed
- Shoots emerge in mid- to late spring
- Leaves are arrowhead-shaped
- Stems often are reddish and twine around other vegetation or structures
- Flowers in mid-summer
- Flowers are small, white to pink (or mixed), and funnel-shaped
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

hedge bindweed
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Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by creeping roots and by seed
- Shoots emerge in mid- to late spring
- Leaves are heart-shaped
- Stems are reddish and twine around other vegetation or structures
- Flowers in mid-summer
- Flowers are large, white, and funnel-shaped
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

horsetail
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Horsetail or scouring rush (Equisetum spp.)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by rhizomes (root-like structures), creeping roots, and tubers
- Certain species produce fertile shoots in mid-spring that are pale tan or whitish; these shoots are slender and unbranched, each with a brown spore-bearing cone at the tip. Fertile shoots soon die, and are followed by green, infertile fronds that superficially resemble pine branches
- Other species bear only one type of shoot, green and unbranched, each with a spore-bearing cone at the tip
- Shoots appear “jointed” and can be easily pulled apart
- All foliage is rough to the touch, reminiscent of sandpaper
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

mouseear chickweed
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Mouseear chickweed (Cerastium vulgare)
- Simple Perennial that sometimes roots at the nodes
- Propagation is by seed
- Leaves are small and opposite, feel velvety, and each bears a prominent midrib
- Flowers in mid- to late summer
- Flowers are white and slightly tube-shaped
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year, although they may stay green in milder climates

field bindweed
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Quackgrass (Elymus repens)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by sharp-tipped, thin rhizomes (root-like structures) and by seed
- Flowers in mid- to late summer
- Flower inflorescences tight spikes
- Rapidly forms dense stands and easily spreads by rhizome fragments

red sorrel
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Red sorrel (Rumex acetocella)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by rhizomes (root-like structures) and by seed
- Shoots emerge in mid- to late spring
- Leaves are arrowhead-shaped with two basal tips
- Flowers in mid- to late summer
- Flowers are greenish and inconspicuous, followed by rusty red fruits
- Plants die back to a perennial root each year

scotch broom
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Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)
- Simple Perennial
- Propagation is by seed
- Germination occurs in spring and summer
- Leaves are small and slightly clover-like, although they rapidly fall from the plants in the spring
- Flowers in mid-spring
- Flowers are yellow with a slightly unpleasant fragrance
- Look thin, pea-pod fruits fringed with hairs that turn black at maturity
- Stems are grooved and are evergreen

white clover
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White clover (Trifolium repens)
- Creeping Perennial
- Propagation is by stems that root at the nodes and by seed
- Leaves begin to form in mid-spring, although sometimes plants bear leaves that stay green all winter
- Leaves have 3 (or sometimes 4) leaflets in a familiar clover shape
- Usually flowers in mid-summer, producing small white heads on short naked stems

willow herb
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Willow-herb (ciliatum)
- Simple Perennial
- Propagation is by seed; seeds are plumed and blow in the wind
- Germination normally occurs in the spring
- Established plants often bear green to red, shiny leaves all winter long
- Usually flowers in mid-summer
- Look for unbranched stems that bear flowers with 4 pink to purple petals at the tips of dark reddish fruits

Weed Control Notes

-30-

Download Word Version of Release
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All images are made available for editorial and educational uses by Preen.com and by special arrangement with Richard Old of XID Services. Please note the credit embedded in each image. XID images come from the interactive DVD: 1200 Weeds of the 48 States and Adjacent Canada (http://xidservices.com/order).